Anthropic principle and aubertirdish life

We are certainly not the only ones who over the "big bang" and his ur-thing mits his consequences

If we look out into the universe and we recognize how many celebrities have worked together in physics and astronomy to our benefit, then it seems almost as if the universe, as freeman dyson has formulated once, "in a sense, we know that we come." but the anthropic principle (AP), which examined the conditions that had to fulfill cosmos and natural laws to produce a form of life that can recognize these conditions, must be further enclosed. Actually, it had to be in the future "exobiological-cosmic" principle are frequented, the path from the big bang to the training of consciousness is not a cosmic singular phanomena: life – that’s the rule in the universe.

Pictures: NASA

How miraculously, it is that much in this world is or seems to be, as we missed it with our senses and artificial instruments, one sees once of the "things; matters" which we have not yet recorded and understood with our senses and artificial instrumentation, such as the nebulose dark matter, such as the nebulosis. Nevertheless, we should be grateful to the cosmic, geological and biological evolution for it that they have been "big bang", the material, space and time generated according to the latest calculations of WMAP 13.7 billion, all the course (in the habitable zone of our galaxy and our solar system) has just adjusted exactly that we are just about this point here and today thoughts can do.

Cosmic-geological-biological evolutional chain

Because what would probably happen, if only a single one to the training of this universe and our existence of an indispensable parameter for nuances have been otherwise, if only a dominoesin in the cosmic, geological and biological evolution chain differently or overpathed goods and the eventful chain reaction, which of big bang to man led, not started?

Based on the pramisse that the course for our current existence on our planet has been placed very precise in the initial urknall phase before 13.7 billion years ago, the anthropic principle (AP) reflects and discusses the physical laws, the natural constants and the cosmological initial conditions. He is concerned with the question of whether the cosmic fine tunnels made (whom or whatever) were precisely adjusted that it has to live in advance, as we know it was to develop or whether the factor random – in the course the evolution itself multiplying – our existence.

The fact that within 13.7 billion years, almost nothing has been conscious, she predicted inconfactorily initial conditions, processes and evolutions, of which only mosaic stones are known to us at best. Thus, the development of the cosmos is crucial by the initial conditions of expansion and the nature constant light velocity C or the planning effect quantum H and the masses of the elementary particles as well as the access hierarchy of the interactions. Even slight differences in the current values of the masses, charges, fundamental constants (H, G, C) had some considerable impact on the development of the cosmos and thus for the development of humanity.

Wonderful number 1040

Already since hermann weyl (1919) and arthur eddington (1923), there is the stranding, important dimensionless constants that characterize the relative ratio of power and particle masses or compare the age of the universe with the light-life time through a hydrogen atom, from the first principles. Thus, the number of baryonic and leptonic particles in the visible universe is equal to the square of 1040, so 1080. Furthermore, the age of the universe T0 1040 corresponds to atomic time units N1 = T0 / (E2 / MEC3), wherein under an atomic time unit, the runtime of the light is to be understood by a hydrogen atom. Added to this is the gravity, which is 1040 times more weak than the electrical force: N2 = E2 / (GMNME) ~ 1040.

In addition, after paul dirac (1937), the approximately coincidence N1 ~ N2 is no coincidence, but a permanent relationship. Since N1 involves the cosmic time, the dirac’s hypothesis implies a periodicity of the gravitational constant, as the elementary charge E and the masses of the elementary particles (electron and proton) are considered constant to stay in line with quantum theory.

Robert thick (1961) opened a new perspective on the explanation of these complaints by bringing the coincidence N1 ~ N2 on necessary biological conditions for the existence of intelligent living beings, which determine this agreement today. The relation N1 ~ N2 is only inherited in a certain interval of cosmic history. In a fruhen epoch was N1 < N2 and the requirements for life was not given because the star development was still in the beginning. Conversely, if all stars burned out and the biosphere of planets is raffled, nobody is probably there to N1 N2 perceive.

Number of space dimensions was elementary

But the AP takes into account other factors. For example, the material density significantly gross than the critical density and goods have been too short the time scale for the formation of bound systems such as galaxies and star populations, had driven a too fast expansion all starting material condensations immediately apart again. Our universe goods degenerate to a lifelong structure, had not had at least one generation of stars sufficient time to develop and produce heavy elements, it did not come to a minimal surplus of matter over antimatery.

But also the number of space dimensions was elementary. So planets with a room with more than three dimensions had their home stars not in stable trains. And in a room with less than three dimensions, complex neural networks were not created: biochemistry had not had the declaration of development necessary for biological evolution. In addition, waves in areas with a straight number of dimensions (2, 4, ..) spreading differently than in areas with odd dimensions (such as in our space). In oddly dimensioned rooms, waves without distortion spread, in areas with a straight number of dimensions, they are blurring: for the enjoyment of a bach, mozart or john scofield concert, for example, this highest fat.

Variants of the anthropic principle

As it is – when studying the APS you have to take advantage of three variants that differently different from each other. That’s about the striceed "formula" of "weak anthropic principle" (thickness 1957) as follows: because there is observers in this universe, the development of the universe must allow the existence of these observers. The observable values of the natural constants and the cosmic initial conditions made from their effects "our" universes precisely corresponded to the requirements necessary for the preconditions of biological evolution intelligent life.

Something more deterministic is already sounding the strong "anthropic principle" (carter 1974), which attributes a unique target direction mechanism to the universe. Thereafter, the universe must have characteristics that can make life evolve in the course of cosmic evolution. The universe had to produce conditions at a certain time of its history, which allow the development of life. The third variant is that "final anthropic principle" (dirac 1961).

It states that intelligent information processing, which is reduced in this variant, must appear in appearance at some point in the universe and, after it has appeared, can never extenuate again. This "postulate of eternal life" has been appealed to a special cosmological development, which was examined by barrow and tipler (1986).

Life – only a transition sphere?

So it should have been the goal of cosmic evolution to bring up life, then this is only limited in view of the time finiteness of the respective planetary biosphere. Also for our species: will she survive, she has to leave the earth someday and travel to other life-friendly planets in our galaxy or neighboring galaxies – but also the goods in view of the future of the cosmos overall only one pushing out the downfall. Life in the current form, the future can not (forever) overseas. Life can first exist only as long as one "warm environment" is given with liquid water and a continued supply of free energy to maintain a constant metabolic rate. In this case, however, the duration of life is limited because a star like the sun or a whole galaxy has only a finite supply of free energy. In the course of the expansion and cooling, the sources of free energy are also exhausted throughout the cosmos, to which lives for his metabolism are properly affected.

Kinking at desmond bernal, who had been thinking about new forms of existence of life in 1929, have recently given freeman dyson, barrow and tipler and again frank tipler in his book the physics of immortality" (1995) the final future of life in the cosmos sensed. According to dyson and tipler, the essence of life is information. This is that the genetic code and the neuronal network – abstract – seen information saving and manufacturing systems are. The starting point for both authors is the biocybernetic definition, according to the living beer information processing systems.

Dyson ames that life and awareness should not be necessary on tailoring through cells and their genetic material in the form known to us. As a substantial nature of consciousness, it considers the complexity of a structure that can also occur in other materialization than in carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen etc. However, any form of matter is exposed to decaying in the case of the instability of the proton. Dyson examines how such abstract creatures with a finite amount of energy in an eternally expanding, continuously expanding cosmos can maintain their metabolism and their communication chance and cognitive activity. Long-term "life" in an open, infinitely extended, eternally expanding space asymptotically expanding. Because information recording, processing and disclosure is always coupled to matter and energy. If matter decapsed, energy differences have balanced, D.H. Thermodynamic equilibrium is achieved, then life (in which form always) is no longer existing.

In contrast to dyson, tipler examines the future of life in a closed cosmos to avoid the problem of no longer available energy. He also bumps to the "final" variant of the "strong anthropic principle" on: life is not a progeny appearance, but constitutively for the cosmos, and therefore must exist forever (barrow, tipler 1984, dirac 1961). But that includes to be cosmosis and in particular in the inferno of a collapsing universe survival, the releasing of life of any material basis. Life survives as a quantum state of an information processing system or. As emulation. The completion of cosmogenesis and biogenesis is found in "omega point" instead of the future training of a collapsed, spatial finite cosmos without event horizon (tipler 1994, 1995). The hypothesis set by tiper "physics of immortality" leave the scope of rational physics and is an attempt to interpret the eschatological perspective designed by parthard de chardin with the help of modern cosmology.

Homo sapiens sapiens – really only life form in the cosmos?

So lifted and in part also futuristic this theses published in the last century therefore come – such thought experiments are quite historical roots. Fact is namely that to the subject "life in all" in the period from the greek antiquity to 1917 estimated 140 books have been brought to papyrus and paper. Especially against the background of the strong anthropic principle, the question involves the question of whether the homo sapiens sapiens really puts the only intelligent way of life in the depths of the cosmos, which was prepared in the course of a long-wing evolution. Due to the fact that in our isotropic and homogeneous universe all existing boundary conditions, all parameters, all physical laws and resulting stellaries, planetars and geological and biological corpers, which on the one hand are our existence, on the other hand due to the cosmological principle as a whole should, in space of life of a variety of ways only so teem? Are not all of the big bang, and therefore children are one and the same "original egg". We are not "the children of the universe, the son and daughter of the stars", which produced the atoms of our body?

As much as the answers of the researchers also differ in detail for this – a tendency is still recognizable, but nowadays, the gros of astronomers not least after the discovery of about 100 extrasolar planets ames that after the big bang next to us extraterrestrial intelligent life forms also planetary niche could have found in all. During many optimists such as carl sagan suspect that in the depths of the cosmos "on a billion planet someday" technical civilizations have been presented, hold martin rees and other astrophysicists, however, it is very conceivable that "in the visible part of the universe" nowhere was life.

If the case, there is still a widespread cosmic phenomenon, then the anthropocentric fixed strong anthropic principle had to be reddated. Maybe it should be better in the future "exobiological-cosmic" principle. The pramisse’s goods henceforth: the path from the big bang to the training of consciousness is – whether he may be random or intentionally, no cosmic singular phanomena. We are certainly not the only ones who use the big bang and its UR matter along with his consequences.