Chinese atom submarine of the jin class.
Only russia and india still have such channels for submarine communication, the US navy should have closed their station sanguine 2004
Presumably, there is only an active eleven transmitter from the cold war, which uses extremely low frequency, namely zevs of the russian navy on the kola peninsula at murmansk, which works with 82 hertz and sends electromagnetic signals with a wavelength of 3700 km. This means that U-boots can communicate up to a depth of 300 meters, although with a very low bandwidth and only one-sided of the ELF transmitter to the submarine. It is sent with a floor pipol as an antenna consisting of two parallel antennas each with a long of 60 km.
The US navy allegedly put the sanguine broadcasting system in 2004. She worked with 76 hertz and a wavelength of 3950 km and consists of the broadcasters at the clam lake in wisconsin and the escanaba river state forest in michigan, which are 260 km apart and connected to a cable.
Transmitter in clam lake. Image: navy
2014 was opened by the indian navy of the very low frequency (VLF) senders in kattabomman in tirunelveli (tamil nadu) for submarine with new atomic submarines. VLF is not enough so deep among the sea levels like eleven.
China, which also reveals militarically and equipped its marine with aircraft carriers, but also with more nuclear powered submarines, now has the well-plated ELF transmission system, which should extend over 3700 square kilometers after 13 years. While eleven channels can also serve civil purposes, such as discovering ground resources or earthquake research. The place of the transmitter is supposedly not exactly known and allegedly also to discover for spy satellites, because the transmitter looks like a normal power plant. In addition, the transmitter inland should be better protected against attacks.
ELF system. Image: chinese defense ministry
After the newspaper SCMP sends the system, which runs under the name wireless electromagnetic method (whom) with 0.1 to 300 hertz and a wavelength of 3500 km. The plant is intended to lie in the central chinese region of huazhong, where the provinces of hubei, henan and hunan are located and that in contrast to the russian and american complex with 230 million people is densely populated.
The whom transmitter consists of overriding high voltage cables on tower, which form a cross with a width of 60 km and a long from 80-100 km. At the end, the cables under the earth go to two electricity units, which send strong electricity into the ground and into one "active source of electromagnetic radiation" transform.
The situation in a densely populated area also evokes concerns about possible health consequences of the station. Whether electromagnetic waves impact extremely low frequency on the human organism or to the human brain harmful, is not clear. The WHO reports that there were indications that in children by eleven (50-60 hertz) leukamie and other diseases such as depression, brain tumors, miscarriages or sleeping memories could be drawn. However, a person who stands on the ground of the system was exposed to only 10 watts, which is not questionable after the chinese navy. According to chinese mabs, a suspension is considered to be risky at more than 300 watts.
Health risks were, as SCMP, in china, when it comes to military projects, mostly downplayed. A researcher involved in militar projects says that eleven probably do not cause direct copyright damage, but to act on the perception. You have to treat positive consequences but carefully to do a panic. China also builds a high-frequency system like american haarp at the sudchinese sea (russia and china have heated the ionosphere with radio waves).